In many parts of the world, laying hens breeding are mainly garden farming feeding, sideline production feeding, and decentralized management feeding. And even these small egg farms are unreasonably designed and lack the corresponding infrastructure, resulting in poor environmental sanitation conditions for laying hens. Easy to breed various diseases, and high rate of disease transmission.
These traditional laying hen breeding ways are not conducive to the development of the laying hen industry, and further development of laying hens requires standardized design and planning. So how do you develop a modern laying hen model? Throughout the world, advanced chicken breeding way is mainly in two regions – the United States and Europe.
American laying hen breeding way
The United States is known as a typical representative in the laying hen culture industry. Its breeding process mainly shows the following characteristics: scale, mechanization, equipment. Feeding the concentrate to the laying hen during the feeding process. Capital and advanced farming technology with full application. It belongs to high-input and high-output industries.
This is related to the actual national conditions of the United States. The United States has a large geographical area and a small population. A large amount of land can be used for laying hen farms. The local labor force is short and the labor cost is relatively high. However, the United States has relatively strong capital and technical strength. Therefore, modern enterprise organizations can be used to carry out industrialization and large-scale production of laying hens, and a large number of mechanical equipments are used in the breeding process, which provides a solid foundation for the scale development of the laying hen industry.
Europe laying hen breeding way
The demand for chicken in Europe is also very large, but the production mode of laying hens breeding in Europe is following the moderately large way. Such as Germany, France, the Netherlands, etc. These countries are relatively lacking in land and labor resources, but the capital and technical strength are strong, so In the process of developing the laying hen industry, it mainly uses capital-intensive, technology-intensive, and intensive family farm models based on mechanical operations. At the same time, Europe is also actively strengthening the scale and industrialization design of the laying hen culture industry.
The necessity of standardizing the construction of chicken farms
In the United States and Europe, in the laying hen breeding process, it is more inclined to scale and industrial ways. In order to truly improve the economic benefits of an industry, it is necessary to strengthen the innovation of the farming model, and many undeveloped areas in the process of chicken breeding, the traditional retail and garden farming brings little economic benefits. In the process of breeding, due to the use of retail and garden farming methods, the breeding process is not standardized, and the construction of chicken houses is not standardized. Many farmers use their own gardens or the surrounding open space for free-range breeding, which brings serious environmental pollution. In the prevention and control of laying hens, there is also a lack of standardization and standardization, which leads to a higher rate of disease in laying hens and rapid spread of diseases. Therefore, in the modern laying hen breeding process, it is necessary to actively strengthen the application of the concept of large-scale and industrial farming, and actively build a standardized laying hen farm.
Standardized laying hen breeding farm construction
Egg farm site selection
Site selection is the first step in the construction of the laying hens. The location of the site can coordinate the relationship between the laying hen industry and the natural environment and social environment, so as to maintain a balance between the three. In the process of site selection, the basic principles of harmony should be followed. The laying hens should be coordinated with the social and economic development. On this basis, other factors should be considered. For example, the topographic conditions of the laying hens farm, whether the soil quality meets the requirements, Whether the water source is convenient, clean, and convenient for transportation and power conditions. Laying hen farms should try to choose areas that are far away from the living points of residents to prevent the breeding process from affecting residents’ lives.
In the construction process of the laying hen farm, in order to facilitate epidemic prevention and tissue production, it is generally necessary to divide the area of the farm, each area is responsible for different tasks, so that the production of the whole laying hen farm is more standardized and orderly. The laying hen farms are generally divided into production areas, living office areas, and sewage and manure treatment areas. Each area should be independent and closed to each other to prevent mutual influence, and in order to do a good job in epidemic prevention, special The anti-epidemic wall or the epidemic prevention ditch is used as a separation belt. A special duty room, disinfection room, dressing room and vehicle disinfection passage shall be set at the entrance and exit of the farm to prevent the entry and exit of personnel and vehicles from bringing viruses and bacteria into the farm to cause large-scale epidemics.
Living and office area
The living office area is the work and living area of the farm staff, and its construction should be divided into reception room, office, veterinary studio, staff quarters and other parts.
The production area is the main area for the production of laying hens. The construction level directly affects the development level of the whole laying hens. In the construction process, the size of the production area of the laying hens should be determined according to the requirements of modern animal husbandry. And a plurality of different breeding areas are set according to the batches to be kept, and each cell should be kept at a distance. In the interior of the chicken farm, the roads should be re-arranged. They can be divided into two different roads, the clean road and the dirty road. The clean road and the dirty road cannot be crossed to prevent the pollution from polluting the clean road. In the planning of the laying hen production area, from the doorway to the brooding house, breeding house, laying hen house, each category of chicken house entrance should have a connected clean way, mainly for feed, eggs and other products Transport to ensure safe and clean feed. Contamination is required at the exit of each house, mainly for the transportation of chicken manure, dead chicken and various kinds of dirt generated during the breeding process. The clean road and the dirty road are isolated from each other and placed in the two directions of the chicken house, which can effectively avoid cross infection.
Manure treatment area
The manure treatment area is a concentrated area in the chicken manure pollution treatment process of the laying hen farm. It plays an important role in the whole laying hen farm. It is easy to cause a large-scale epidemic infection due to the large amount of viruses and bacteria in the filth and all kinds of dirt. So in the design process of the manure treatment area, a relatively closed and tidy area should be established. The safety principle is the basic principle to prevent the manure in the breeding process from being directly placed around the farm. It is also necessary to collect and treat all the manure generated during the breeding process to ensure that the manure does not overflow. If the scale of the laying hen farm is large, special large-scale and medium-sized biogas digester can be set up, and the corresponding biogas production equipment can be purchased to immediately treat various kinds of manure generated by the farm to produce biogas that can be recycled and protect the environment.
The internal equipment is also the key to the construction of the farm. The main equipments are as follows:
- Sanitary disinfection facilities and equipment.
Sanitary disinfection equipment is mainly used for disinfection and sanitation treatment. For example, the disinfection locker room should be built at the gate of the production area, and the production personnel should disinfect and change clothes before entering the chicken farm production area. In the interior of the disinfection locker room, special wardrobes, disinfection sinks, UV lamps are installed for disinfection, and separate bathing and dressing rooms can be provided if conditions permit. In addition, a large disinfection tank should be installed at the entrance to the production area to allow the vehicle to be disinfected as it enters and exits the production area.
- Chicken farm roads.
Chicken farm road is an important roll to connect the various areas of the chicken farm. In the road design process, convenience and epidemic prevention requirements should be considered. On the one hand, the clean road and the dirt road should be separated. On the other hand, the road itself should be well drained. The road should be with good quality. Generally, the concrete structure is used for road construction, and the thickness is controlled to be 14 to 16 cm, and the concrete strength is required to be above C20.
- Water supply and drainage
In the process of breeding, water plays an indispensable part.
Mainly two the drinking water are divided into two parts, laying hens drinking water and water source for farm cleaning. In the design of water supply, special pump houses, water towers and pipelines should be established. At the same time, scientific drainage facilities should be set up to discharge the sewage in the production process in time.
Circuit design is the key point in the design of chicken farms. The power of the transformer should meet the maximum power load in the production process of the farm. For some mechanized farms. Because there are many mechanical equipment, it is also necessary to configure a standby generator set to make an emergency in case of power failure.
As one of the important meat products in people’s lives, chicken meat has a high proportion in modern breeding. The traditional laying hen culture is mainly based on garden breeding, sideline production and decentralized management. This farming mode has brought tremendous pressure on public health and food safety. We must actively strengthen the planning and design of laying hens, improve the standardization of farms, and promote the standardization and industrialization of laying hens.